The best fire prevention work

2022-07-28
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Good fire prevention work

with the development of China's market economy, some owners have built some gas stations with novel and unique shapes, exquisite decoration and considerable scale in order to remain invincible in the competitive market. These gas stations integrate refueling, catering, shopping and accommodation, and have great fire risk. Once a fire occurs, the consequences will be unimaginable. Therefore, it is an arduous task to do a good job in fire prevention of large gas stations in the future

1 fire risk of large gas stations

1.1 multiple functions and difficult management

in order to expand platinum, gold and platinum: the exclusive influence of high wealth and handsome, the owners often land thousands or even tens of thousands of square meters to build gas stations, and build hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and parking lots with a certain scale in the stations, so as to provide all-round services for customers who come to refuel. Due to its multiple functions, it uses more fire and electricity, and the living area, administrative area and refueling area are not effectively separated, resulting in a large number of foreign vehicles and personnel entering and leaving the refueling area, which is difficult to manage, and is very easy to cause a fire

1.2 large oil storage capacity and insufficient fire separation

large gas stations operate various types of gasoline, diesel, kerosene and lubricating oil with large sales volume. They usually need to store a large amount of product oil. The total capacity of these product oil often exceeds the oil storage capacity of first-class automobile gas stations, reaching the oil storage standard of small oil depots, and its fire risk is far greater than that of general gas stations. In addition, according to the relevant provisions of the code for design of oil depots, the corresponding fire separation distance shall be reserved between the buildings (structures) in the gas station and between the buildings (structures) and the oil storage tanks, fuel dispensers and other facilities. However, due to site restrictions and other reasons, the fire separation distance between the buildings (structures) in the gas station and between the buildings (structures) and the oil storage tanks, fuel dispensers and other facilities cannot meet the requirements of the specification, and the fire hazards are artificially buried. In case of a fire, It is very likely that the fire will spread rapidly due to insufficient fire separation, resulting in a disaster

1.3 the modeling of electrical equipment and pipeline laying are not standardized

due to the inaccurate division of explosion hazardous areas, the electrical equipment in some gas stations often adopts ordinary type, which has no explosion-proof function at all. If it is not replaced in time, it is likely to cause fire and explosion accidents. In addition, during the construction, some owners laid the power lines, oil pipelines and thermal pipelines in the same trench without authorization for the sake of convenience, laying hidden dangers for fire accidents

1.4 employees' awareness of fire safety was weak in 2012, and their safety knowledge was deficient.

some gas station employees engaged in refueling, storage and other work without fire training. Because they have not received systematic fire education, they lack sufficient understanding of the fire risk in hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and other living areas and refueling areas, and know little about the fire safety knowledge of their posts. Some even fail to correctly report the fire and do not use the existing fire-fighting equipment in the station to put out the initial fire. In 2000, when a gas station in Hubei Province was filling up oil in the station, a large number of oil spilled out of the tank due to the unauthorized absence of the gas staff. However, the staff of the gas station were unaware of it and continued to operate. Finally, a fire star from a car's exhaust pipe when it was refuelling caused a combustion explosion, resulting in 8 deaths and 5 injuries, and 51 economic losses × 104 yuan

2 fire prevention countermeasures for large gas stations

2.1 the public security fire protection institutions shall strictly carry out fire prevention review to ensure that no congenital hidden dangers are left

the public security fire protection institutions shall strictly control the "construction review", and for new, modified and crowded large gas stations, they shall intervene in advance and strictly control the project approval, site selection and drawing review to prevent the occurrence of congenital fire hazards. In the audit, attention shall be paid to whether the general layout is reasonable, whether the operational accommodation, catering, entertainment and other facilities are established separately from the gas station, whether the fire separation between buildings (structures) and between buildings (structures) and oil tanks, fuel dispensers and other facilities is up to standard, whether the design of electrical devices is in line with the specifications, etc. standards must not be reduced and requirements must not be relaxed. If the fire separation is insufficient due to the limitation of the site, it shall be solved by setting up an independent firewall and changing the use of the building. Generally, the distance between the underground horizontal tank and the open fire or spark emitting place shall not be less than 30 m, and the distance from the important public buildings shall not be less than 50 m; The fire separation from other class I, II and III protected civil buildings shall not be less than 25 m, 20 m and 16 m, and the aboveground oil tanks shall be resolutely eliminated. During the construction of the gas station, the public security and fire protection institutions should set the following standards for the use of the universal testing machine: check on site regularly to see whether the electrical lines are laid in a concealed manner according to the regulations, whether the oil pipelines, cables and thermal pipelines are laid in the same pipe trench, and whether they are filled with sand. If problems are found, urge them to solve them in time. After the completion of the project, the public security fire protection agency shall conduct a comprehensive and careful acceptance of the gas station project and its ancillary construction projects, and shall not agree to put it into use if it does not meet the fire safety conditions

2.2 the business owners should strengthen the awareness of fire safety and strengthen fire management

as the oil products operated and stored in the gas station are flammable liquids with low flash point, and these flammable liquids are highly flammable and explosive, flow and diffusion, thermal expansion and other characteristics, so the probability of fire is quite high. Therefore, gas stations should fully understand the importance and necessity of doing a good job in fire fighting, enhance their sense of urgency and abandon their paralysis and fluke mentality. The control system shall be established as the corresponding fire prevention organization for the 500kN horizontal tensile testing machine. The legal representative shall be directly in charge and sign the fire safety book with the responsible personnel of the hotels, restaurants and supermarkets to further decompose the fire safety to every post and every employee. The living areas and administrative areas such as hotels, restaurants and supermarkets shall be reasonably divided to separate them from the refueling part. The entrances and exits of the living areas, administrative areas and refueling areas shall be set separately to prevent outsiders from entering the refueling area at will. The fire prevention inspection shall be organized regularly and irregularly according to the features of gas stations with many functions, and hidden dangers shall be found and eliminated in time. A fire safety management system that is practical and easy to operate shall be formulated, and regular supervision and inspection shall be conducted. The compliance with the system shall be linked to the personal salary and bonus, so as to mobilize the enthusiasm of all personnel to do a good job in fire protection

2.3 strengthen fire protection training for employees

the industry mainly conducts fire safety education for employees by holding fire protection training courses, carrying out fire protection knowledge competitions and setting up fire protection bulletin boards in stations, so that they can understand the fire hazards of hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and refueling places, master the fire prevention knowledge and relevant fire protection laws and regulations in these places, and consciously perform their respective fire protection responsibilities. It is necessary to carry out the system of key types of work with certificates. All special key types of work, such as oilers and storekeepers, need to be trained by special fire training institutions and obtain certificates before they can take up their posts

2.4 set up a volunteer fire brigade to put out the initial fire in time

the gas station should set up a volunteer fire brigade of 5 ~ 8 people according to the actual situation, and be equipped with fire extinguishers, dry sand, fire blankets, foam and other fire-fighting equipment. According to the fire characteristics of hotels, restaurants, supermarkets and flammable and explosive places, a fire-fighting and evacuation plan in line with the actual situation shall be formulated, and the drill shall be conducted at least once every half a year, so that each volunteer firefighter can skillfully master the fire-fighting methods for the initial fire in these places, so as to avoid a small fire from causing a major disaster

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